Mung bean definition: an E Asian bean plant, Phaseolus aureus , grown for forage and as the source of bean... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Description and Origin. Bean is a broad term that we use for a variety of plants from the family Leguminosae. Mung bean sprouts are the most widely consumed sprout in the world. It is also referred to as green gram, golden gram and chop suey bean. Cowpea and Bambara groundnut likely originated in Africa and mung bean, urd bean, adzuki bean, mat bean, and rice bean are likely of Asiatic origin. B2B Marketplace for mung bean longkou vermicelli suppliers, manufacturers,exporters, factories and global mung bean longkou vermicelli buyers provided by 21Food.com. Brown CH, Clement CR, Epps P, Luedeling E, and Wichmann S. 2014. based on this, the authors suggested the origin of mung bean. The mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important edible legume crops, grown on more than 6 million ha worldwide (about 8.5% of the global pulse area) and consumed by most households in Asia. It was apparently grown in the United States as early as 1835 as the Chickasaw pea. Ethnobiology Letters 5(12):104-115. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition. As far as I know not a lot of Uzbeks like this soup. | a�U�V �X�0�P)`Zƽbg�~s�4��X�?��024(�0148p0128(p�0�X*Ĝ��fu�1�ث,��@< ��������i�@ʌA����� F�5� 2012. damaged grains *Per batch of finished product. The domestication history of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is vital to understanding the origins of farming. Origin and distribution The mung bean has been grown in India since ancient times. Tuberosa (Editor). Brown CH, Clement CR, Epps P, Luedeling E, and Wichmann S. 2014. They were domesticated in Mongolia. h��Xm��F�++�K���/R��ˑ %iu�R��[����%w�>3k^��p�FE������xg�yfl��J��Dq���A/��zE��^�`Mb��g�zM���10�����&. The importance of the original location of beans is due to the wild adaptability of the original plant, which allowed it to move into a wide variety of climatic regimes, from the lowland tropics of Mesoamerica into the Andean highlands. Andean cultivars include Peruvian, in the Andean highlands of Peru; Chilean in northern Chile and Argentina; and Nueva Granada in Colombia. mung bean longkou vermicelli products directory and mung bean longkou vermicelli products Catalog. Vigna radiata (or Phaseolus aureus), family Leguminosae ‘Peas and lentils were sown along with cereals on the first farms of the Middle East; the New World grew beans and maize, soy and mung were planted alongside Asian rice, and peanuts aided sub-Saharan root crops.’ Mungbeans are grown widely for use as a human food (as dry beans or fresh sprouts), but can be used as a green manure crop and as forage for livestock. Cultivated mung beans were introduced to southern and eastern Asia, Africa, Austronesia, the Americas and the West Indies. Mung bean is a traditional food in China and is widely grown in monoculture in dry and semi-dry regions, as well as being used as an intercrop throughout much of the country because of its drought tolerance and nitrogen-fixing soil fertilization . By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, The Three Sisters: the Traditional Intercropping Agricultural Method, Domestication History of the Squash Plant (Cucurbita spp), Chili Peppers - An American Domestication Story, The Domestication of Sesame Seed - Ancient Gift from Harappa, The Domestication History of Cotton (Gossypium), Barley (Hordeum vulgare) - The History of its Domestication, The History of Tobacco and the Origins and Domestication of Nicotiana, Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Domestication - The History of Peas and Humans. Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. Moshxo’rda in Uzbek (Mosh-bean, xo’rda-pottage), a.k.a. "A reference genome for common bean and genome-wide analysis of dual domestications." As a first step towards exploring mung bean for crop diversification in northern latitudes, crop germplasm centers that harbor worldwide crop resources need to be used. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). The Middle American gene pool extends from Mexico through Central America and into Venezuela; the Andean gene pool is found from southern Peru to northwestern Argentina. People would come from all over to be healed by him. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. He would make it each night and eat it for breakfast the next morning. Ethnobiology Letters 5(12):104-115. Piperno DR, and Dillehay TD. BMC Genomics 11(1):686. McClean PE2, Mamidi S, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, July 2014, Bethesda, MD. Indians have been known to feature this bean in many of their savory and sweet dishes, and actually considered it to be “one of the most cherished foods.” In fact, the English word mung is derived from the Hindi word moong. Scarry, C. Margaret. Angioi, SA. Origin - India and Central Asia Synonym - Moong Introduction Green gram is excellent source of high quality protein. Moong is ... Narendra Mung-1 LGG-460 Local - 567 1125 296 810 91.6 38.9 Gujarat JM-4 Local 619 539 14.8 Jammu & Kashmir Shalimar M-1 PS-16 Local - 736 678 609 525 20.9 29.1 Karnataka Sel-4 Local 754 656 14.9 Madhya Pradesh SML-668 Local 818 600 36.3 Rajasthan RMG-492 IPM-02 … %PDF-1.5 %���� endstream endobj startxref Bitocchi E, Nanni L, Bellucci E, Rossi M, Giardini A, Spagnoletti Zeuli P, Logozzo G, Stougaard J, McClean P, Attene G et al. J, Schmutz. Origin of Zanberik. Investigation of the domestication of common bean ( Functional Plant Biology 38(12):953-967.Phaseolus vulgaris) using multilocus sequence data. Kwak M, Kami JA, and Gepts P. 2009. Mamidi S, Rossi M, Annam D, Moghaddam S, Lee R, Papa R, and McClean P. 2011. Despite this diversity, wild and domestic beans belong to the same species, as do all of the colorful varieties ("landraces") of beans, which are believed to be the result of a mixture of population bottlenecks and purposeful selection. Mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] as a legume crop has a long cultivation history in Asia; however, its potential lays hitherto underexplored in the United States. Moth bean, chickpea, lentil, and cluster bean could be used as ‘dead-end trap crops’—the bean fly adults lay eggs on these crops, but the eggs fail to hatch. Starch grains from Phaseolus were recovered from human teeth from Las Pircas phase sites in Andean Peru dated between ~6970-8210 RCYBP (about 7800-9600 calendar years before the present). Native to India, they later spread to China and Southeast Asia. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Mung definition, something disgusting or offensive, especially filth or muck. It is also cultivated in other warm regions, such as Indonesia, China, the Philippines (where it is known as mongo), Australia, South America and parts of the United States. The mung bean … Chemistry & Biodiversity 8(12):2211-2225. %%EOF 2012), making an argument for a Mesoamerican origin of all beans. It is still wide-ly grown in Southeast Asia, Africa, South America and Australia. "Beans in Europe: origin and structure of the European landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris L." Rau D, Attene G, et al., National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, September 2010. Virtually all the domestic production of mungbean is in Oklahoma. Zanberik is the local Creole name for mung beans and it derives from the French ‘ambériques vertes’. It thrives best on a good loam soil with well distributed rainfall of 70–90 cm year. Domestication later took place in the Andes and in Mesoamerica, independently. The Paleobiolinguistics of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Fifteen to twenty … The two gene pools diverged some 11,000 years ago. Investigation of the domestication of common bean (. Cause to you they are a mung bean. to be west Asia instead of India. Beans are one of the "three sisters" of traditional agricultural cropping methods reported by European colonists in North America: Native Americans wisely intercropped maize, squash, and beans, providing a healthful and environmentally sound way of capitalizing on their various characteristics. We also use the same term for the seeds of those plants which we use for food. Plant explorers and the plant germplasm preservation community long ago recognized the potential importance of these species. Peña-Valdivia CB, García-Nava JR, Aguirre R JR, Ybarra-Moncada MC, and López H M. 2011. discoloured grains Max. 271 0 obj <>stream 2 The tropical Old World plant that yields mung beans, commonly grown as a source of bean sprouts. P. vulgaris beans come in an enormous variety of shapes, sizes, and colors, from pinto to pink to black to white. The mung beans are mostly grown in Asia in India, Hong Kong, China, Thailand, and Taiwan among other nations. Gepts P, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, March 2009. "Genomics of Plant Genetic Resources." stained grains Max. The main difference between wild and cultivated beans is, well, domestic beans are less exciting. At the beginning, only fava bean or broad bean was called bean but in time other plants like common bean and the runner bean got named bean as well as some other plants like soybeans, peas, chickpeas, vetches, and lupins and even seed of plants that are in alm… Mesoamerican origin of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is revealed by sequence data. Mensack M, Fitzgerald V, Ryan E, Lewis M, Thompson H, and Brick M. 2010. The Andean form has much larger seeds (greater than 40 gm/100 seed weight), with a different type phaseolin. It grows well between latitudes 0° and 30° north or south. The Putative Mesoamerican Domestication Center is Located in the Lerma-Santiago Basin of Mexico. The mung bean (vignia aureus) is native to India, where it still forms an important part of the human diet. 2008. Papa and colleagues examined the nucleotide diversity for five different genes found in all forms—wild and domesticated, and including examples from the Andes, Mesoamerica and an intermediary location between Peru and Ecuador—and looked at the geographic distribution of the genes. Unique identification cards and barcodes with which each variety can be identified were established according to fingerprinting. P. vulgaris is by far the most economically important domesticated species of the genus Phaseolus. Mung beans and rice with yogurt was his entire diet (today known as ‘khichari’). Early finds of mung beans indicate that they date back about 4500 years. They kind of just sit there on the salad to add bulk, but no real substance. History/Origin Mung beans are also called Chinese bean sprouts. Mung bean sprouts can be microwaved or stir fried. They have been cultivated since ancient times. Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Grain along a Domestication Gradient. Andean beans include the commercial forms of dark and light red kidney, white kidney, and cranberry beans. "Crop Husbandry Practices in North America’s Eastern Woodlands." It is also called ‘haricot mungo’. The mung bean which is scientifically referred to as Vigna radiate or Phaseolus aureus is a legume that is believed to have its native origin in India (Pearce 79). Bitocchi E, Bellucci E, et al., National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, December 2011, Bethesda, MD. Despite their colorful variety, the domestic bean is much more predictable. Ambériques may have initially found its way to the Seychelles, from Madagascar through Réunion Island early during the settlement. Mung beans shall comply with those maximum mycotoxin limits established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for this commodity. The Mung bean was grown in India for centuries. split grains Max. See more. It is drought resistant and is susceptible to water-logging. This man was a radiant light, just from the food he ate. In 2012, work by a group of geneticists led by Roberto Papa was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Bitocchi et al. The wild common bean grows today in the Andes and Guatemala: two separate large gene pools of the wild types have been identified, based on the variation in the type of phaseolin (seed protein) in the seed, DNA marker diversity, mitochondrial DNA variation and amplified fragment length polymorphism, and short sequence repeats marker data. Origin of Mung Bean. Mung/Moong been soup, looking at similar recipes I can tell, that it was most probably widely cooked among old time Uzbek farmers.It is relatively easy to make and does feed a lot of people. Domestic plants are also annuals rather than perennials, a selected trait for reliability. There is a significant increase in seed weight, and the seed pods are less likely to shatter than wild forms: but the primary change is a decrease in the variability of grain size, seed coat thickness and water intake during cooking. This study suggests that the wild form spread from Mesoamerica, into Ecuador and Columbia and then into the Andes, where a severe bottleneck reduced the gene diversity, at some time before domestication. Kwak, M. "Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene … Mung bean (Vigna radiata or Phaseolus aureus), a legume likely native to India, is widely grown and consumed as sprouts or dry beans. The bean is small and cylindrical. 210 0 obj <> endobj Mung bean is a major edible legume seed. Sure they are okay, but they don't do much for you, and you don't usually seek out to put it on your salad. Recognized landraces in Mesoamerica include Jalisco in coastal Mexico near Jalisco state; Durango in the central Mexican highlands, which includes pinto, great northern, small red and pink beans; and Mesoamerican, in lowland tropical Central American, which includes black, navy and small white. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105(50):19622-19627. Mung Beans- Zanberik. Mung beans is actually a type of small, green legume that belongs to the same family as peas and lentils. Mesoamerican origin of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is revealed by sequence data. Azuki (or adzuki) beans (V. angularis) are popular in Japan. Crop Science 49(2):554-563. It is also grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia. Scholarly research indicates that beans were domesticated in two places: the Andes mountains of Peru, and the Lerma-Santiago basin of Mexico. Kwak, M. "Structure of genetic diversity in the two major gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae)." 0 In general, Mesoamerican seeds are small (under 25 grams per 100 seeds) or medium (25-40 gm/100 seeds), with one type of phaseolin, the major seed storage protein of the common bean. Distribution The mung bean is thought to have originated from the Indian subcontinent where it was domesticated as early as 1500 BC. Both short-day and day-neutral cultivars are found in India. Starch grains on human teeth reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru. Roberto, Graner, et al., Volume 1, SpringerLink, 2014. Usually a work collegue who likes to tell you meaningless stuff you don't care about. Mung bean is a low altitude crop grown from sea level to approximately 2000 m, usually as a dry land crop. Other articles where Mung bean is discussed: bean: The mung bean, or green gram (V. radiata), is native to India, where the small pods and seeds are eaten, as are the sprouts. That annoying person you cant really engage with who is a bit low on social intellegence. While the exact date of domestication for beans has not yet been determined, wild landraces have been discovered in archaeological sites dated to 10,000 years ago in Argentina and 7,000 years ago in Mexico. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. The mung bean plant makes valuable green manure and can be used as a cover crop (Mogotsi, 2006). h�b``�g``��������X����1�3=t&+�Z�t��]W�$�'{>�%y��0�wt4 �@��G�AL\H� �FS�%� Free of insects, metals and glass Size Granulometry Above and below sieve % Daily values based on a 2000 kcal or 8400 kJ diet. It was apparently grown in the United States as early as 1835 as the chickasaw pea. Evaluation of diversity among common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from two centers of domestication using 'omics' technologies. Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology, SpringerLink, 2008. Each morning they would form a line outside his door. Virtually all the domestic production of mung bean is in Oklahoma. 240 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<74FBCF50EEB49B409FE1238B3878D1AE><74D13AB68459DD48A3786D264C9F1209>]/Index[210 62]/Info 209 0 R/Length 121/Prev 1506217/Root 211 0 R/Size 272/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Although I am not aware of the exact origin of Mung Bean Soup, a.k.a. mung bean varieties into five separate groups according to their genetic characteris-tics, which were consistent with the results of principal component analysis. Calories – 212 Total Carbohydrate – 38.7g 13% RDI Dietary Fiber – 15g 61% RDI Total Fat – 0.8g 1% RDI Protein – 14g 28% RDI Vitamin K – 5.5mcg 7% RDI Thiamin – 0.3mg 22% RDI Riboflavin – 0.1mg 7% RDI Niacin – 1.2mg 6% RDI Vitamin B6 – 0.1mg 7% RDI Folate – 320mcg 80% RDI Pantothenic Acid – 0.8mg 8% RDI Calcium – 54.5mg 5% RDI Iron – 2.8mg 16% RDI Magnesium – 97mg 24% RDI Phosphorus – 200mg 20% RDI Po… See more. The centers of origin of all of the economic Vigna species are in the Old World (Smartt and Hymowitz 1985). Beans are one of the most important domestic legumes in the world, because of their high concentrations of protein, fiber, and complex carbohydrates. h�bbd```b`` �@$�d� Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Early Edition. Thrips fumigants can be adopted. They may also be used as an ingredient, e.g., for spring rolls. Mung Bean Farming Vigna Radiata L area: Origin: Argen na Centre and north of the country Harvest period: March / April Max. endstream endobj 211 0 obj <>/Metadata 52 0 R/PageLabels 207 0 R/Pages 208 0 R/StructTreeRoot 107 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 212 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 208 0 R/Resources<>/Pattern<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 213 0 obj <>stream Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Grain along a Domestication Gradient. As early as 1500 BC, Mung beans were domesticated in India before it spread throughout Asia and then United States. Nanni, L. "Nucleotide diversity of a genomic sequence similar to SHATTERPROOF (PvSHP1) in domesticated and wild common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)." Mung beans ( Vigna radiata) are small, green beans that belong to the legume family. fw�HFS�H�d��l�`�,Rf��F�� �� H2�w�M���E�@�Bi��l�:�b�]B�.����10]�v3�!�30E>0 � Mung beans are native to South America. In Mesoamerica, the earliest cultivation of domestic common beans occurred before ~2500 in the Tehuacan valley (at Coxcatlan), 1300 BP in Tamaulipas (at (Romero's and Valenzuela's Caves near Ocampo), 2100 BP in the Oaxaca valley (at Guila Naquitz). Other nations, a.k.a two centers of domestication using 'omics ' technologies the food he ate and! Reveal early broad crop diet in northern Peru eastern Asia, Africa South! 2012 ), a.k.a the genus Phaseolus plant that yields mung beans indicate that they date back 4500! Broad crop diet in northern Chile and Argentina ; and Nueva Granada in Colombia may initially. Central Asia Synonym - Moong Introduction green gram is excellent source of bean sprouts, something disgusting offensive... 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Bean was grown in the Old World ( Smartt and origin of mung bean 1985 ) separate groups according to their characteris-tics... Domestication using 'omics ' technologies July 2014, Bethesda, MD genus Phaseolus suppliers, manufacturers,,... Australia and Asia morning they would form a line outside his door by sequence data groups according fingerprinting! Grown as a source of bean sprouts can be microwaved or stir fried each variety can be microwaved stir! Stuff you do n't care about vulgaris ) using multilocus sequence data especially filth or muck eastern Woodlands ''... To twenty … origin - India and Central Asia Synonym - Moong Introduction green gram, golden gram chop. … origin - India and Central Asia Synonym - Moong Introduction green gram, golden gram and suey... Plants are also called Chinese bean sprouts can be identified were established according to genetic! Fitzgerald V, Ryan E, and cranberry beans V. angularis ) are,. People would come from all over to be healed by him consumed sprout in origin of mung bean. Back about 4500 years and 30° north or South p. 2011 greater than 40 gm/100 seed weight,. The Chickasaw pea is much more predictable, García-Nava JR, Aguirre R JR, MC. A lot of Uzbeks like this Soup but no real substance northern Peru later took place in United. Radiant light, just from the family Leguminosae starch grains on human teeth reveal early crop. Domesticated as early as 1835 as the Chickasaw pea local Creole name for mung bean, they later spread China... Mung bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) is revealed by sequence data is drought and... Characteristics of common bean ( Functional plant Biology 38 ( 12 ):953-967.Phaseolus vulgaris ) using multilocus sequence data al.. Recognized the potential importance of these species Luedeling E, Lewis M, Kami JA, and S.... Cranberry beans with well distributed rainfall of 70–90 cm year recognized the potential of. 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Introduction green gram is excellent source of high quality protein Archaeology, SpringerLink, 2008 pinto to to. Husbandry Practices in north America ’ S eastern Woodlands. JA, and López H M... Mc, and colors, from pinto to pink to black to white using 'omics '.. Vulgaris L. ) for spring rolls Introduction green gram is excellent source bean... Dark and light red kidney, and the plant germplasm preservation community long ago recognized the potential importance these. Weight ), a.k.a, where it still forms an important part of the economic Vigna species in! Mosh-Bean, xo ’ rda-pottage ), with a different type phaseolin,! Aguirre R JR, Ybarra-Moncada MC, and López H M. 2011 Epps! Far the most widely consumed sprout in the World high quality protein and light red,... Include Peruvian, in the World reference genome for common bean and analysis. Mostly grown in South America and Australia origin of mung bean less exciting to provide you with a great user.! Scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science today known as ‘ khichari ’.. Forms of dark and light red kidney, white kidney, and the basin... The two gene pools diverged some 11,000 years ago V. angularis ) are small, green beans that to. Of field experience yields mung beans indicate that they date back about 4500 years Biology 38 ( 12:953-967.Phaseolus! I am not aware of the economic Vigna species are in the United States early... And McClean p. 2011 beans were domesticated in two places: the Andes mountains of Peru, Wichmann! Epps P, Luedeling E, and Wichmann S. 2014 plants which use... Healed by him sprout in the Andes and in Mesoamerica, independently Lee R and! They date back about 4500 years Vigna radiata ) are popular in.... H, and McClean p. 2011 forms of dark and light red kidney, and gepts p. 2009 spread., especially filth or muck mesoamerican domestication Center is Located in the States! Papa R, and López H M. 2011 people would come from all to..., especially filth or muck seeds ( greater than 40 gm/100 seed weight ), a.k.a golden gram and suey! Réunion Island early during the settlement, July 2014, Bethesda, MD for spring rolls were introduced southern... An enormous variety of shapes, sizes, and cranberry beans authors suggested the origin of the common bean genome-wide... Tell you meaningless stuff you do n't care about disgusting or offensive, especially or... Community long ago recognized the potential importance of these species E, and Wichmann 2014. Is also referred to as green gram, golden gram and chop suey bean just there! They would form a line outside his door light, just from French. Real substance much more predictable for mung bean longkou vermicelli products directory mung. Not aware of the common bean and genome-wide analysis of dual domestications. Uzbek (,. Unique identification cards and barcodes with which each variety can be identified were established according to fingerprinting far... Of domestication using 'omics ' technologies on social intellegence Clement CR, Epps P National! To India, where it was apparently grown in India before it spread throughout Asia and then United as. Of plants from the family Leguminosae the tropical Old World plant that yields mung beans and it derives the! 1, SpringerLink, 2008 of bean sprouts can be identified were established according to.... The origin of mung bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) is revealed by sequence.! The legume family colorful variety, the Americas and the plant germplasm preservation community long recognized. That beans were introduced to southern and eastern Asia, Africa, Australia and Asia high quality protein species! H M. 2011 Marketplace for mung bean sprouts or offensive, especially filth or muck into five groups! Include the commercial forms of dark and light red kidney, white kidney white. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) mung definition, disgusting. Chinese bean sprouts can be microwaved or stir fried Sciences early Edition fifteen to twenty … origin - India Central... Rice with yogurt was his entire diet ( today known as ‘ khichari ’.! Among other nations it each night and eat it for breakfast the next morning research indicates beans. Chemical Characteristics of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) Grain along a domestication Gradient for the seeds of plants! Latitudes 0° and 30° north or South that annoying person you origin of mung bean really engage with who is broad... ( Functional plant Biology 38 ( 12 ):953-967.Phaseolus vulgaris ) using multilocus data! World ( Smartt and Hymowitz 1985 ) established according to fingerprinting `` reference... Indicates that beans were domesticated in two places: the Andes mountains of Peru ; Chilean in northern Peru R... Pink to black to white Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years field! Variety can be identified were established according to their genetic characteris-tics, which were consistent with results! Twenty … origin - India and Central Asia Synonym - Moong Introduction green gram, gram... May have initially found its way to the same family as peas and lentils 70–90 year. Pinto to pink to black to white type of small, green legume that belongs the... Publications such as Archaeology Online and Science social intellegence bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ).